### Day 1 :

#### Keynote Forum

#### Yakir Aharonov

Chapman University, USA

###### Keynote: A new approach to quantum mechanics

Time : **09:00-10:00**

##### Biography:

Yakir Aharonov, Ph.D., is professor of theoretical physics at Chapman University, where he holds the James J. Farley Professorship in Natural Philosophy. Considered one of the most highly regarded scientists in the world, Dr. Aharonov received the prestigious Wolf Prize in 1998 for his co-discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect, one of the cornerstones of modern physics. He is also recipient of the 2009 President's National Medal of Science, "for his contributions to the foundations of quantum physics and for drawing out unexpected implications of that field ranging from the Aharonov-Bohm effect to the theory of weak measurement." He is one of the authors to the book "Quantum Paradoxes" along with Dr. Daniel Rohrlich, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. The book is a pioneering work on the remaining mysteries of quantum mechanics.

##### Abstract:

I discuss in my talk the reformulation of quantum mechanics in which each quantum system, at any time is described by two Hilbert space vectors rather than one. One of the vectors propagates from past boundary condition towards the present and the other propagates back to the present from a future boundary condition. I will show that this reformulation uncovers a host of fascinating new phenomena, some of which will be described in detail within this talk. Finally, I will show that this new reformulation suggests a novel solution to the notorious problem of the Quantum Measurement.

#### Keynote Forum

#### Eli Pollak

Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

###### Keynote: The transition path time distribution - quantum mechanics, vanishing tunneling flight times and special relativity

Time : **10:00-10:45**

##### Biography:

Eli Pollak, Ph.D., is currently a full professor in the Chemical Physics Department of Weizmann Institute of Science. He completed his Ph.D. Dissertation themed "New Methods of Calculating Transition Probabilities in Chemical" in the year 1976 from the Hebrew University. Prof Pollak has his reasearh thrust in the fields of Time in quantum mechanics, Quantum dynamics in real time, Heavy atom-surface scattering & Quantum thermodynamics. He has over 250 publications in these concerend fields. He has been awarded with many honors with Meitner-Humboldt Research Award and APS- Outstanding referee some of them.

##### Abstract:

Recent experimental measurements of the transition path time distributions of proteins demonstrate that these distributions are experimentally measurable. The folding unfolding dynamics of proteins is classical mechanical in nature but the experiments suggest that there is value in developing a quantum theory of transition path time distributions. The formalism is used to study the quantum dynamics of thermal position correlation functions. Highlights are the proof of a vanishing mean tunneling time at the parabolic barrier crossover temperature and that increasing the length of the path traversed may decrease the mean transition time. The mean transition path time is used to define a coarse-grained momentum for passage from one side of the barrier to the other. The product of the uncertainty in this momentum with the uncertainty in the location of the particle is shown under certain conditions to be smaller than the ħ/2 formal uncertainty limit. The transition path formalism will then be used to define a tunneling flight time which is found to vanish for an Eckart barrier and a rectangular barrier, irrespective of the barrier width and height. This generalizes the Hartman effect. Yet, as shall be shown, special relativity is not violated.

**Recent Publications:**

[1] E. Pollak, Quantum Tunneling - The Longer the Path the Less Time it Takes, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. **8**, 352 (2017).

[2] E. Pollak, Transition path time distribution, tunneling times, friction and uncertainty, Phys. Rev. Lett. **118**, 07041 (2017).

[3] E. Pollak, Thermal quantum transition path time distributions, time averages and quantum tunneling times, Phys. Rev. A **95**, 042108 (2017).

#### Keynote Forum

#### Eliade Stefanescu

Institute of Mathematics “Simion Stoilow” of the Romanian Academy, Romania

###### Keynote: Quantum master equation for fermions and a unitary relativistic quantum theory

Time : **11:05-11:50**

##### Biography:

Eliade Stefanescu is a graduate of Faculty of Electronics, Section of Physicist Engineers in 1970 and completed PhD in Theoretical Physics in 1990, is a professional with multidisciplinary openness: electronics, physics of semiconductor devices, and open quantum physics with applications in quantum optics and nuclear physics.

##### Abstract:

A system of fermions is usually described by a Hamiltonian with Fermionic operators. However, such a system is never isolated, but in a dissipative environment of the free electromagnetic field at a certain temperature, of the collective rotations and vibrations of this system, or of the support system, and of other neighboring particles. The dissipative dynamics is usually described as a time-dependent dynamic semigroup, depending on unspecified, phenomenological parameters. In this framework, more or less at the same time with other authors, we found that dissipation increases the penetrability of a potential barrier, fitted a cold fission spectrum, and calculated the width ratio of the two bumps of a double nuclear giant resonance. However, in the following investigations, we used the more physical method of Ford, Lewis, and O’Connell, providing explicit, microscopic coefficients. In this way, we derived master equations for Fermions, Bosons, and electromagnetic field, imagined a device converting environmental heat into usable energy, and effectively calculated the physical characteristics of such a device. This description is based on two different theories: quantum mechanics, and the electromagnetic theory. Here we show that the equations of these two theories can be obtained in the same theoretical framework, of a unitary relativistic quantum theory. We conceive a particle as an unconventional wave packet in the coordinate and momentum spaces, providing the two Hamilton equations as group velocities in these spaces, while the Hamiltonian in the time dependent phase of the conventional wave packet is replaced by the Lagrangian. We adopt a relativistic quantum principle, asserting that the time dependent phase is invariant to an arbitrary change of coordinates. When a finite spectrum is considered, the relativistic dynamics is obtained for a quantum particle. We describe the interaction of such a particle with a field by a variation of the time dependent phase, with terms proportional to the coordinate and time variations, while the coefficients of these terms define the vector and scalar potentials of this field. From the group velocities of a quantum particle, we obtain the Lagrange equation, the Lorentz form of a mechanical force, and three Maxwell equations. For a field propagating with the limit velocity c of the quantum particle waves, the fourth equation, Ampère-Maxwell, is obtained. In this theoretical framework, we obtain the spin as a characteristic of a quantum particle, and demonstrate the spin-statistics relation.

**Figure:** *Quantum particle wave-packet with a limit velocity c, interacting with *

*an electromagnetic field propagating with this velocity.*

**Recent Publications:**

[1] Sargsyan, VV, Kanokov, Z, Adamian, GG, Antonenko, NV (2016), Application of the Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Nuclear Physics Problems, Physics of Particles and Nuclei, vol. 47, p. 157.

[2] Stefanescu, E, Sandulescu, A & Greiner, W (1993), Quantum tunneling in open systems, International Journal of Modern Physics E, vol. 2, p. 233.

[3] Stefanescu, E, Scheid, W, Sandulescu, A, & Greiner, W (1996), Cold fission as cluster decay with dissipation, Physical Review C, vol. 53, p. 3014.

[4] Stefanescu, E, Liotta, RJ & Sandulescu, A (1998), Giant resonances as collective states with dissipative coupling, Physical Review C, vol. 57, p. 798.

[5] Ford, GW, Lewis, JT & O’Connell, RF (1996), Master Equation for an Oscillator Coupled to the Electromagnetic Field, Annals of Physics, vol. 252, p. 362.

[6] Stefanescu, E (2010), Master equation and conversion of environmental heat into coherent electromagnetic energy, Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol. 34, p. 349.

[7] Stefanescu, E (2014, vol. 2 in print), Open Quantum Physics and Environmental Heat Conversion into Usable Energy, Bentham Science Publishers, Sharjah (UAE), Brussels, Danvers (Massachusetts, USA).

[8] Stefanescu, E (2014), The relativistic dynamics as a quantum effect, Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, vol. 1, p. 13.

#### Keynote Forum

#### Georgi P Shpenkov

University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, Poland

###### Keynote: The shell-nodal structure of the atoms

Time : **11:50-12:35**

##### Biography:

Georgi Shpenkov has completed his PhD in 1968 from Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of RAS (Leningrad) and DrSc degree in 1991 (Tomsk, RAS). He is a retired Professor, an Honorary Member of the Russian Physical Society. He has published 9 books and more than 100 papers in different issues. His main achievements are the discoveries of the nature of mass and charge of elementary particles, the Shell-Nodal (molecule-like) structure of the atoms, the microwave background radiation of the hydrogen atom, the Dynamic Wave structure of the elementary particles, the fundamental period-quantum of the decimal code of the universe, the fundamental frequencies of the atomic, subatomic and gravitational levels, the true nature of the Lamb shift, etc.

##### Abstract:

Analyzing particular solutions of a three-dimensional (not Schrodinger’s) wave equation in spherical polar coordinates, we have found that they contain information about the atomic structure. Considered as the wave formations, atoms have a quasi-spherical shell-nodal structure coincident with the nodal structure of standing waves in three-dimensional wave spacefield. Their nodes, filled with paired hydrogen atoms, are bound by strong interaction. Each atom with Z ≥ 2 represents a specific elementary molecule of hydrogen atoms, to which we refer proton, neutron and protium. The shell-nodal structure of the atoms was verified in different ways. All of them completely confirmed the trueness of the found structure. A unique opportunity for the direct verification of the discovery gave us graphene. According to the modern data, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of graphene has a six-fold axis of symmetry. Hence, in full agreement with a basic symmetry theory, physical properties of graphene must be isotropic in a plane perpendicular to this axis, in particular, electrical conductivity. However, our studies have shown that graphene actually has a two-fold axis of symmetry, due to the shell-nodal structure of carbon atoms, and is an anisotropic crystal. Along the main axis of anisotropy, there are empty potential-kinetic polar nodes (invisible for modern devices), which form a specific channel conducive to the “ballistic” motion of charges in it. In this direction, graphene behaves like a metal. In a perpendicular direction graphene exhibits semiconducting properties. Laboratory tests completely confirmed the predicted feature of graphene, following from particular solutions of the wave equation. Polar diagrams of conductivity of one-atom thickness graphene layers, measured along a plane in all directions, have a characteristic elliptical form for all test samples (they had a round shape) which are inherent in anisotropic materials. Experiments performed by polarized Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the above feature of graphene, found theoretically. Thus, “atoms” are the wave formations. Having the shell-nodal structure, they represent elementary molecules of hydrogen atoms.

**Figure:** *A particular solution*

**Recent Publications:**

[1] Shpenkov G.P. (2015), Dialectical view of the world: The Wave Model (Selected Lectures), Vol. 5 “Shell-Nodal Structure of the Atoms”; http://shpenkov.janmax.com/Vol.5.Shell-NodalAtomicStructure.pdf

[2] Ibid, Vol. 6 “Topical Issues”; http://shpenkov.janmax.com/Vol.6.TopicalIssues.pdf

[3] Shpenkov G.P. (2015), Three-dimensional solutions of theHelmholtz equation, 23rd Annual Meeting of the German Crystallographic Society (Göttingen, 16-19 March 2015); http://shpenkov.janmax.com/talk2015Gottingen.pdf . ЖУРНАЛ РУССКОЙ ФИЗИЧЕСКОЙ МЫСЛИ (ЖРФМ), Том 87, № 1, Стр. 128-151; http://shpenkov.janmax.com/JRFHO-87-1.Shpenkov.pdf

[4] Shpenkov G.P. (2011), Physics and Chemistry of Carbon in the Light of Shell-Nodal Atomic Model, Chapter 12 in "Quantum Frontiers of Atoms and Molecules", edited by Putz M. V., NOVA SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, New York, 277-323.

[5] Шпеньков Г.П. (2016), Размерность единицы электроёмкости «фарад» и смысл «электрической постоянной» ε_{0}; НАУЧНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ РУССКОГО ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО ОБЩЕСТВА, ЖРФХО, Т. 88, вып. № 2, pages 33-41.